Some great characters in the history of Spain
Abd ar-Rahman III (891–961), Umayyad emir (912–29) and first caliph (929–61) of Córdoba. When he succeeded to the throne, the Spanish emirate was reduced to Córdoba and its environs and beset with tribal warfare. Abd ar-Rahman recovered the lost provinces, consolidated the central government, and created internal peace and prosperity. He built up a strong army and navy and waged war successfully against the Fatimids in N Africa and the Christian kings of León. He made Córdoba one of the greatest cities in the West.
Goya was born to a modest family in 1746 in the village of Fuendetodos in Aragon. He studied painting from age 14 under José Lúzan y Martinez and moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1775; the couple's life together was characterised by an almost constant series of pregnancies and miscarriages. He became a court painter to the Spanish Crown in 1786 and the early portion of his career is marked by portraits commissioned by the Spanish aristocracy and royalty, and the Rococo style tapestry cartoons designed for the royal palace.
Goya was a guarded man and although letters and writings survive, we know comparatively little about his thoughts. He suffered a severe and undiagnosed illness in 1793 which left him completely deaf. After 1793 his work became progressively darker and pessimistic. His later easel and mural paintings, prints and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal, social and political levels, and contrast with his social climbing. He was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France. In 1799 Goya became Primer Pintor de Càmara, the then highest rank for a Spanish court painter. In the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family, the tone and intent of which is still debated; likely Goya saw Charles IV as a weak, ineffectual king. In 1807 Napoleon lead the French army into Spain.
He remained in Madrid during the disastrous Peninsular War, which seems to have affected him deeply. Although he did not vocalise his thoughts in public, they can be inferred from his "Disasters of War" series of prints (although published 35 years after his death) and his 1814 paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808. Other works from his mid period include the "Caprichos" and Los Disparates etching series, and a wide variety of paintings concerned with insanity, mental asylums, witches,fantastical creatures and religious and political corruption, all of which suggest that he feared for both his country's fate and his own mental and physical health. His output culminates with the so-called "Black Paintings" of 1819-1823, applied on oil on the plaster walls of his house the
"Quinta del Sordo" (house of the deaf man) where,
disillusioned by domestic political and social developments he lived in near
isolation. Goya eventually abandoned Spain in 1824 to retire to the French city
accompanied by his much younger maid and companion, Leocadia Weiss, who may or may not have been his lover. There he
completed his "La Tauromaquia" series and a number of canvases. Following a
stroke which left him paralysed on his right side, and suffering failing
eyesight and poor access to painting materials, he died and was buried on April
16th 1828 aged 82. His body was later re-interred in Spain.
Marco Valerio Marcial (40-104 ac): Writer and Spanish poet, born about the year 40 in the town of Bilbilis, modern Calatayud (city of the Spanish province called Tarraconensis), and dead to the 104, perhaps in the same Bilbilis. The cognomen Martialis or martial would derive, apparently, they were born on March 1. After educated in Hispania, marched to Rome in 64, famous year because it was the fire of Rome by Nero; It remained there, relationship with other intellectuals of Hispanic, such as Seneca and Lucan, until these and others fell into disgrace after the Pison conspiracy of the year 65. In the Urbs, he remained nearly thirty-five years, because we know that he left it in 99. After living as a poet for hire in search of a rich patron for years (which justifies the praise directed to various patricians and even the same Domitian), his fame grew, and with it, received honors, tax exemptions and the right to have slaves, the ius trium ius liberorum (but never married) and even an appointment as military Tribune. He took home in Rome and a villa in Nomento.
Related to all court, since the Emperor until the last of his acolytes, also maintained close contact with many writers (particularly, with Pliny the younger, Silius Italicus, Juvenal and his countryman, Quintiliancalagurritano), although it is known that its relations with Estació were really bad. All this universe is reflected in 1,561 epigrams he composed between 86 and 98; at the end of his life, according to the testimony of Plinio the younger, he sang the Palinode, regretted some of his poems and decided to return to his homeland to take charge of a villa donated by a such Marcella; After a long trip to Hispania, which paid for the same Pliny, it died about the year 104.